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澳大利亚的合欢树花

樊问
2017-04-25
 澳大利亚首都8月的堪培拉,春回大地,柳树吐绿。霏霏细雨之后,梨花、桃花、杜鹃花、山茶花、刺梅花竞相开放。红的、蓝的、紫的、粉的、白的,繁花似锦,芳香扑鼻。

在春天的百花园中,数合欢树花开行最欢,最茂盛(见下图)。城市的路旁、湖畔、山坡上、树林间、公园和私宅庭院里,到处都披挂着、点缀着金黄色的花絮,仿佛成了金货色的世界,怕人带来一种生机勃勃的感觉。我为首次观赏到台欢树花朵怒放的自然奇观而高兴。    合欢树有750多种,在美洲、非洲、亚洲部分地区都有,以澳大利亚的品种最多,共有800多种,集世界合欢树之大成。    

澳大利亚区域辽阔,到处都生长六合欢树,数量和品种比这里著名的按树还要多。从塔斯马尼亚的雨林到西部干旱地区,从北澳到南澳,从海滨到山区,合欢树处处可见。有的以金钱命名,如金合欢树、银合欢树;有的以树列颜色命名,如红叶合欢树、绿叶合欢树、黑叶合欢树;还有犁头合欢树、楔形叶合欢树、毛发合欢树等等。    澳大利亚的合欢树有灌木,也有乔木,高的可达十几米,矮的不到一米。树叶有阔的,也有窄的、尖的,有长叶也有短叶。合欢树的花色有金黄的、黄的,偶尔还有白色的,但以黄色为多。花形有球状的,也有麦穗状的;花期有早有晚,从8月上旬一直开到10月下旬,一串串,一球球,花朵重叠团簇在一起,煞是好看,散发着淡淡的幽香,给人以美的享受。    

合欢树花,在澳大利亚家喻户晓,老少皆知,电视里、广告上、画册里,甚至火车票上都有它的图案。歌曲里歌颂它,诗歌里描绘它,人们把合欢树花作为春天的象征、国家的骄傲,1912年金合欢树花被正式命名为“国花“。
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